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Jasa Translate Jepang – Indonesia – English

Cepat, Murah, dan Terpercaya

Anda harus menerjemahkan Dokumen untuk referensi penelitian atau tugas dari dosen. Deadlinenya mepet, sementara Anda tidak punya banyak waktu mengerjakannya karena sibuk. Mulai dari kuliah, praktikum, menulis laporan, hingga hang out bersama teman-teman.
Mungkin juga anda capai, sehingga malas menterjemahkan. Atau pernah mencoba menerjemahkan sendiri, tapi hasilnya tidak memuaskan.
Familiar dengan kondisi di atas?
Jika ya, jangan khawatir. Saya punya jasa translate dan bisa membantu Anda menerjemahkan jurnal dengan cepat, bagus, dan biayanya murah. Sehingga Anda bisa fokus ke hal-hal penting lain atau punya waktu dengan teman atau keluarga.
Perkenalkan, saya Lukman. Saya Masih terjun dilapangan penterjemahan dan berpengalaman menerjemahkan ribuan dokumen bahasa Jepang-Inggris-Inggris sejak 2016 seperti Dokumen2 perusahaan dan Frelancer translator.

2. Grammar
2.1. Agreement
2.1.1. Tense, mood, aspect, person (for verbs)
Please be mindful with the purpose of tense in the source text.

Example
Source text: If you are seeing an issue with this,
✘もしこれに問題を見ているのであれば、
✓こちらに関しまして問題にお気づきの場合は、

When encountering modal auxiliary verbs, please study the context first as to how to translate.

Examples
Source text: You should be able to access it within a week.
✘ あなたは一週間以内にアクセスできるべきです。
✓ 一週間以内にアクセスできるかと思います。

Source text: Can you confirm that this is your email address?
✘ これがあなたのEメールアドレスであることを確認することができますか?
✓こちらがお客様のメールアドレスでお間違えないでしょうか。

Please examine each context to decide on the most suitable counter suffix.

Example
Source text: I have found four hotels that match your request.
✘ お客様のリクエストに沿う四個のホテルを見つけました。
✓お客様のリクエストに沿う四軒のホテルを見つけました。

2.1.2. Particles
There are typically eight types of prepositional particles, that are used when constructing Japanese sentences. General usage can be classified as below:

1. は/が
はis called a topic marker, as it marks a topic of the subject a speaker talks about.

Example
Source text: Hello. This is Mike.
✘ こんにちは。私がMikeです。
✓ こんにちは。こちらはMikeです。

が is used similarly, but it frequently marks the subject of a sentence with emphasis or to distinguish it from others. One exception applies when constructing negative sentences. In such occasions, はis often used regardless of the context.

Examples
Source text: Here is the itienary for your trip.
✘ こちらはお客様のご旅行の日程です。
✓ こちらがお客様のご旅行の日程です。

Source text: Our business is not open on weekends.
✘週末が営業日ではございません。
✓週末は営業日ではございません。

2. に/へ
It indicates a place or an object towards which the subject moves or transfers. へ is also used for the same purpose, but the register is more formal.

Example
Source text: Please head to the hotel in the morning.
✓ 午前中にホテルに向かってください。
✓ 午前中にホテルへ向かってください。(more formal)

にand へ are also used when receiving or giving items or with passive verbs when an action is done to the subject by the grammatical agent.

Examples
Source text: Please send it to us.
✓ こちらにご送付頂きますようお願いいたします。
✓ こちらへご送付頂きますようお願いいたします。(more formal)

Source text: I have been informed that you were introduced by a friend.
✓ ご友人にご紹介されたとお聞きしました。

に is used to indicate the location of existence when used with the verbs ‘ある・いる’.

Example
Source text: Your travel agent is at the airport.
✓ 旅行代理店の社員は空港にいます。

に is used to refer to time.

Example
Source text: The airplane will leave at 1:30 p.m.
✓ 飛行機は午後1時半に出発します。

3. を
It indicates the grammatical object of a sentence, in the form noun+を+verb.

Example
Source text: Please let me know your login information .
✓ お手数ですがお客様のログイン情報をお知らせください。

4.で
It is used to indicate the location of an action.

Example
Source text: Please collect your ticket at the airport.
✓ 空港でチケットをお受け取りください。

It also indicates the means.

Example
Source text: Please get to the airport by bus
✓ バスで空港までお越しください。

5. と
It is used to join nouns. や can also be used interchangeably in right contexts, though it often means “such things as 1, 2, and 3”.

Examples
Source text: Please set up your login ID and password.
✓ ログインのIDとパスワードを設定してください。

Source text: There are such colors as red and blue.
✓ 赤や青があります。

と is also used to mark quotes.

Example
Source text: I have been informed that you want to cancel your ticket.
✓チケットをキャンセルされたいとお聞きしました。

6.も
This particle is equivalent to “also” and “too” in English. When used, it replaces such particles as が, は, andを.

Example
Source text: This buggy comes in pink, too.
✓ こちらのベビーカーはピンクもございます。

7.の
It implies possession in the form object1+の+object2.

Example
Source text: Please indicate your full time.
✓ お客様のお名前をフルネームでお知らせください。

8. から
This particle indicates the starting position as well as the source of action or an object.

Examples
Source text: How long does it take from the hotel to the airport?
✓ ホテルから空港までどれくらいかかりますか。

Source text: Trains have been running since 5 a.m.
✓ バスは午前5時から走っています。

Source text: I received the itinerary from the travel agent.
✓ 旅行代理店から旅程を受け取りました。

9. まで
It represents the ending position and an action that reaches a destination or a limit.

Examples
Source text: : This bus runs until 12:00 a.m.
✓ こちらのバスは午前12時まで走っています。

Source text: My bus can take you from your hotel to the airport.
✓ こちらのバスはお客様のホテルから空港まで行きます。

Please keep in mind that there are exceptions and not all circumstances strictly adhere to the above explanations.

2.2. Determiners
Japanese determiners differ from their counterparts in English in the sense that Japanese does not have articles as ‘the,’ ‘a,’ or ‘an.’ Please, study the examples below for general usage of determiners in Japanese.

I. Articles

Examples
Source text: The itinerary is enclosed in this email.
✓ 旅程はこちらのメールに添付されています。(No determinant necessary)

Source text: A red buggy is easy to spot.
✓ 赤いベビーカーは見つけやすいです。(No determinant necessary)

Source text: The red buggy is easy to spot.
✓ その赤いベビーカーは見つけやすいです。

II. Demonstratives

Examples
Source text: This red buggy is easy to fold.
✓ この赤いベビーカーは畳みやすいです。

Source text: These red buggies are easy to fold.
✓ これらの赤いベビーカーは畳みやすいです。

Source text: That red buggy is easy to fold.
✓ その赤いベビーカーは畳みやすいです。

Source text: Those red buggies are easy to fold.
✓ それらの赤いベビーカーは畳みやすいです。

Source text: That red buggy over there is easy to fold.
✓ あれらの赤いベビーカーは畳みやすいです。

Source text: Those red buggy over there are easy to fold.
✓ あれらの赤いベビーカーは畳みやすいです。

Source text: that book
✓ その本 (Near listeners)
✓ あの本 (Far from both)

III. Quantifiers

Examples
Source text: A few clients prefer A to B.
✓ 数人のお客様はBよりAを好まれます。

Source text: Please add a few descriptive words.
✓ 少し説明の言葉を添えてください。

Source text: Some passengers remained on the train.
✓ いくつかの乗客はバスに残った。

Source text: Any flight will suit me.
✓ どのフライトでも構いません。

IV. Numbers

When constructing sentences with numbers as determiners, please be careful with the use of counters:

Examples
Source text: places
✘ 二つのレストラン
✓ 二軒のレストラン

Source text: objects with wheels
✘ 四つのベビーカー
✓ 四台のベビーカー

Also, when constructing partitive subjects, please pay attention to their word order.

Example
Source text: Three of your emails
✘ あなたのEメールの三つ
✓ お客様の三通のメール

V. Possessives

When using possessives, please be mindful to distinguish the use of formal register between teineigo, sonkeigo, and kenjogo. If you are expected to use the kenjogo form, please do not use the literal translation of “you”, “her”, “him”, and “their”.

If the addressee is a client, “you” should be translated as お客様 but never as あなた or any other form of “you” in Japanese.

Example
Source text: Please send me your itinerary.
✘ あなたの旅程をお送りください。
✓ お手数ですがお客様のご旅程をご送付頂きますようお願いいたします。

For translation of “her”, “his” and “their”, please directly refer to their name or position.

Examples
Source text: Please send me her itinerary. (ex. “her” refers to the client’s wife whose name is Chikako.)
✘ 彼女の旅程をお送りください。
✓ 奥様のご旅程をご送付頂きますようお願いいたします。
✓ Chikako様のご旅程をご送付頂きますようお願いいたします。

Source text: Please send me their itineraries. (ex. “their” refers to the client’s family.)
✘ 彼らの旅程をお送りください。
✓ ご家族のご旅程をご送付頂きますようお願いいたします。

2.3. Pronouns
Japanese is a null subject language and it thus differs from the English sentence structure in having to repeat the pronouns. Once the topic and subject are introduced, they are often omitted to avoid sounding redundant. They are not mentioned explicitly until emphasis is added or the subject changes.

Examples
Source text: His name is Andy. He is 23 years old.
✘ 彼はAndyです。彼は23歳です。
✓ 彼はAndyです。∅ 23歳です。

Source text: Tickets go on sale today. Would you like to purchase one?
✘ チケットは今日が発売日です。あなたは買われますか?
✓ チケットは今日が発売日です。∅ 買われますか。

Source text: I am purchasing one ticket. Would you like to get one too, Mike? (continuation of the previous example.)
✘ ∅ 一枚買うんだ。∅ どうする?
✓ 私は一枚買うんだ。マイクはどうする?

2.4. Verbs
While the present tense is used in English in some current activities, please note that the present progressive form is used in Japanese.

Examples
Source text: Maya goes to kindergarten.
✘ Mayaは幼稚園に通います。
✓ Mayaは幼稚園に通っています。

Source text: The restaurant is closed.
✘ レストランは閉まります。
✓ レストランは閉まっています。

3. Orthography
3.1. Abbreviations
There are no set of rules for abbreviations in Japanese. However, some common examples are described below:

Examples
Source text: High school
✘ 高等学校
✓ 高校

Source text: Convenience store
✓コンビニエンス・ストア ⇒ コンビニ

Source text: Air conditioner
✘ エアーコンディショナー
✓ エアコン

Source text: Smartphone
✘ スマートフォン
✓ スマホ

Source text: PC
✘ パーソナルコンピューター
✓ パソコン

3.2. Diacritics
The rule of diacritics differs slightly between hiragana and katakana. Diacritics can further be divided into the dakuten and the handakuten. In both hiragana and katakana, the dakuten is applied to the ka, sa, ta, and ha rows of kana characters. In all cases, each character sound becomes voiced (i.e. ‘ka’ to ‘ga’, ‘sa’ to ‘za’, ‘ta’ to ‘da’, and ‘ha’ to ‘ba’). The handakuten is applied only to the ha row, where the consonant ‘h’ is replaced by the ‘p’ (i.e. ‘ha’ to ‘pa’). In katakana, one exception is applied to the ha row, where the ‘u’ can be voiced with the dakuten (i.e. ‘u’ to ‘vu’). This is often used in loanwords to indicate that the sound does not naturally exist in Japanese.

Examples
Source text: PC
✘ ハソコン
✓ パソコン

Source text: Key
✘ かき
✓ かぎ

Source text: Violin
✘ ハイオリン
✓ ヴァイオリン
✓ バイオリン

3.3. Foreign words
Foreign words are most commonly transliterated in katakana depending on how they are pronounced in the original language. When relatively long foreign words are translated, they can also be abbreviated for convenience.

Examples
Source text: McDonalds
✘ まくどなるど
✓ マクドナルド

Source text: Password
✘ ぱすわぁど
✓ パスワード

Source text: Basketball
✘ ばすけっとぼぉる
✓ バスケ
✓ バスケットボール

3.4. Numerals
Regarding numerals format (written in numbers or words), you must always respect the source text: if they are written as digits in the source text, this should be maintained in the translation; on the other hand, if they are written as words, they should be translated to the target language.

In commonality with English, Japanese uses a comma to indicate groups of thousands.

Example
Source text: 20,000
✓ 20,000

In Japanese, the distinction between the use of kanji or Arabic numerals is arbitrary, though there are some cases where one is used more dominantly than the other.

Example
Source text: one million dollars
✘ 1000,000ドル
✘ 1億ドル
✘ 一億ドル
✓ 100万ドル
✓ 百万ドル

Japanese uses the English period to indicate the decimal place.

Example
Source text: 36.5 degrees
✘ 36,5度
✘ 三十六.五度
✓ 36.5度

3.5. Symbols
When symbols are used, they is written without a space between the characters and the symbols. Some symbols are also translated into Japanese in some contexts.

Examples
Source text: 50%
✘ 50 %
✓ 50%
✓ 50パーセント

Source text: Donald Trump
✘ ドナルドトランプ
✘ ドナルド ・ トランプ
✓ ドナルド・トランプ

4. Punctuation
4.1. How to use punctuation marks
Comma: when translating more than three objects, subjects, items, etc., please use a Japanese comma. Though, it is sensible to not overuse commas in Japanese.
Example
Source text: If you would like to reach us, please call us at xxx.
✘ お問い合わせいただくには, xxxにご連絡ください。
✘ お問い合わせいただくには, xxxに、ご連絡ください。
✓ お問い合わせいただくには、xxxにご連絡ください。

Colon: colons are generally not used in Japanese except in some contexts. In most cases of translation, please replace them with a period.
Examples
Source text: Please see below for the instruction:
✘ 説明は下記をご覧ください:
✓ 説明は下記をご覧ください。

Source text: Start: 6:30 p.m.
✘ 開始時刻。6時半
✓ 開始時刻:6時半
✓ 開始時刻:午後6:30

Source text: 15:45 p.m.
✘ 午後15。45
✓ 午後15:45
✓ 午後15時45分

Semicolon: semicolons are generally not used in Japanese. When translating sentences that require a semicolon, please replace them with a period.
Example
Source text: (1) Open documents; (2) Right-click your mouse; (3) Click x
✘ (1)ドキュメントを開く;(2)マウスを右クリックする;(3)xをクリック。
✓(1)ドキュメントを開く。(2)マウスを右クリックする。(3)xをクリック。

Period: when using a period in Japanese at the end of every sentence, please use the Japanese period: 。Periods are also used to replace exclamation points and question marks in formal texts.
Example
Source text: Thank you for your feedback.
✘ 貴重なご意見をありがとうございます.
✓ 貴重なご意見をありがとうございます。

Exclamation point: it should only be used in informal texts if the source text has an exclamation point. When translating a source text that contains exclamation points and the register asked is formal, please replace them with a period.
Examples
Source text: Thank you for the review! (formal register)
✘ ご評価いただきありがとうございます!
✓ ご評価いただきありがとうございます。

Source text: Thanks for your email! (informal register)
✘ メールありがとう。
✓ メールありがとう!

Question mark: it should only be used in informal texts if the source text has a question mark. When translating a source text that contains question marks and the register asked is formal, please replace them with a period.
Examples
Source text: Could you forward the information? (formal register)
✘ その情報を転送していただけますか?
✓ そちらの情報を転送していただけますか。

Source text: Can you teach me this? (informal register)
✘ これ教えてくれる。
✓ これ教えてくれる?

Interpunct: is often used to separate foreign names or words written in katakana. This helps separate words into their intended parts as this cannot be easily discerned due to the lack of whitespaces. It may also be used in certain cases for listed items, titles, names and positions.
Examples
Source text: Ariana Grande
✘ アリアナグランデ
✓アリアナ・グランデ

Source text: Sound of Music
✘サウンドオブミュージック
✓サウンド・オブ・ミュージック

Source text: Monday, Wednesday, Friday
✘ 月、水、金曜日
✓月・水・金曜日

Source text: Assistant Department Head Matsuda
✘ 部長補佐松:松田
✓ 部長補佐・松田

Hyphen, en dash, em dash: these are foreign punctuation marks and are generally used in Japanese. However, when indicating a range of time, dates, page numbers, etc., please use the punctuation 〜.
Examples
Source text: Our business hours are 9:00 a.m. – 6:00 p.m.
✘ 営業時間は午前9時–午後6時です。
✓ 営業時間は午前9時〜午後6時です。
✓ 営業時間は午前9時から午後6時までです。

Source text: Our employees work 40-50 hours a week.
✘ 弊社の従業員は一週間に40–50時間働きます。
✓ 弊社の従業員は一週間に40〜50時間働きます。

Source text: Please read pages 10-15 of this instruction book carefully.
✘ 10–15ページを注意深く読んでください。
✓ 10〜15ページを注意深く読んでください。

Source text: Team X defeated Team Y 7-3.
✘ チームXは7-3でチームYを破りました。
✓ チームXは7対3でチームYを破りました。

Quotation marks: when translating quotation marks, use the Japanese quotation marks accordingly.
Example
Source text: Click “Paste”.
✘ “貼り付け”をクリック。
✓ 「貼り付け」をクリック。

Brackets: they are used the same way as in English.
Example
Source text: (You will see this on top of the screen.)
✘ スクリーンの上部に表示されます。
✓ (スクリーンの上部に表示されます。)

4.2. Punctuation in greetings and closings
In greetings and closings that you want to be formal, Japanese does not require punctuation marks other than periods and commas. If the source text is such that it is written in a friendly or casual register, exclamation points and question marks can directly be translated. There is no way to determine the correct use of punctuation, as Japanese greetings and closings come in various forms, depending on the occasion (i.e. weddings and seasonable greetings, as well as funerals and farewell messages).

Examples
Source text: Hello! (daily greeting)
✘ こんにちは!(formal)
✓ こんにちは。(formal)
✓ こんにちは。(informal)

Source text: Good bye! (daily greeting)
✘ 失礼いたします!(formal)
✓ 失礼いたします。(formal)
✓ じゃあ!(informal)

Source text: Regards, John
✘ 敬具、John
✓ よろしくお願い致します。John

Source text: Sincerely, John
✘ 心をこめて、John
✓ よろしくお願い致します。John

5. Register
5.1. Grammatical and Lexical Registers
Register refers to the level of formality used in the text. It shows how our clients address their customers and contributes to the voice of the brand itself. Register may vary depending on the company, the brand, the service they offer, the customers, and the target language.
We make a first main distinction between grammatical and lexical register: the first one regards to the use of pronouns and verb person (for the languages to which this morphological feature is applied), while the latter is related to lexical choices, since some words and expressions also have a degree of formality or colloquialism.

Both these registers are also divided into formal and informal, as shown below.

5.2. Formal Register
Japanese contains several degrees of formality: teineigo, sonkeigo, and kenjogo.
Teineigo: it is general formal register where inflectional endings are typically 〜ます or 〜です. Compared to the sonkeigo and the kengojo, the teineigo conveys a more conventional and casual tone, in the sense that this degree of formal speech does not place the speaker neither in a superior or a subordinate position.
Sonkeigo: it is used when you are in a subordinate position to the addressee, and you thus use the type of speech to honor the addressee. This degree of formality goes one level beyond the teineigo.
Kenjogo: it is also used when you are in a subordinate position to the addressee, and you thus use the type of speech to make yourself sound humble. This degree of formality goes one level below the teineigo.
One thing we should always keep in mind is the concept of ‘うち’ and ’そと’. This is about the ‘insider’ and ‘outsider’ people. The ‘insider’ is treated like the speaker himself/herself. Therefore, even if the ‘insider’ is senior or higher in status than the speaker, s/he cannot use formal register in a way that s/he shows respect to an ‘outsider’.

Example
Source text: The company president is not here now.
✘ 社長は今いらっしゃいません。
✓ 社長は今おりません。

Personal Pronouns
Examples
Type of Register

I
✓ 私 (watashi)
Teineigo
I
✓ 私 (watakushi)
Kenjogo

We
✓ 私達
Teineigo
We
✓ 私ども or 当方
Kenjogo

We (our company)
✓ 本社
Teineigo
We (our company)
✓ 弊社or 当方
Kenjogo
You
(singular and plural)
Context-dependent. The second person pronoun is usually avoided, as Japanese is a null-subject language. Use his/her name directly if known:
✓ ◯◯さん
Teineigo
You
(singular and plural)
✓ ◯◯様
✓ お客様 (to client)
Sonkeigo, Kenjogo
You (your company)
✓ 貴社
✓ 御社 (colloquial)
Sonkeigo
She
Address her name whenever possible:
✓ 〇〇さん (in case of the Adressee’s party. No さんif she is the addresser’s party).

When the name is unknown:
✓ 彼女
Teineigo
She
Avoid literally translating “she”. Use the name directly if known:
✓ ◯◯様

When the name is not known:
✓ 奥様 (the addressee’s wife)
✓ ご祖母様 (the addressee’s grandmother)
✓ お母様 (the addressee’s mother)
✓ お嬢様 (the addressee’s daughter)
✓ お姉様 (the addressee’s elder sister)
✓ 妹様 (the addressee’s younger sister)
✓ ご友人 or ご親友 (the addressee’s friend, genderless)
Sonkeigo
She
Use the name directly if known:
✓ 〇〇 (no様 or さん)

When the name is not known:
✓ 妻 (the addresser’s wife)
✓ 祖母 (the addresser’s grandmother)
✓ 母 (the addressee’s mother)
✓ 娘 (the addresser’s daughter)
✓ 姉 (the addresser’s elder sister)
✓ 妹 (the addresser’s younger sister)
✓ 友人 or 親友 (the addresser’s friend, genderless)
Kengojo
He
✓ 彼
✓ 〇〇さん (in case of the addressee’s party, No さんif he is the addresser’s party)
Teineigo
He
Avoid literally translating “he”. Use the name directly if known:
✓ ◯◯様

When the name is not known:
✓ ご主人様 or 旦那様 (the addressee’s husband)
✓ ご祖父様 (the addressee’s grandfather)
✓ お父様 (the addressee’s father)
✓ お子息様 (the addressee’s son)
✓ お兄様 (the addressee’s elder brother)
✓ 弟様 (the addressee’s younger brother)
✓ ご友人 or ご親友 (the addressee’s friend, genderless)
Sonkeigo
He
Use the name directly if known:
✓ 〇〇 (no様 or さん)

When the name is not known:
✓ 夫 (the addresser’s husband)
✓ 祖父 (the addresser’s grandfather)
✓ 父 (the addressee’s father)
✓ 息子 (the addresser’s son)
✓ 兄 (the addresser’s elder brother)
✓ 弟 (the addresser’s younger brother)
✓ 友人 or 親友 (the addresser’s friend, genderless)
Kengojo
They
✓ 彼ら
Teineigo
They
Japanese is a null-subject language, and the use of “they” is omitted when possible. When it is required, the specific subject is most likely used accordingly:
✓ ご両親様 (the addressee’s parents)
✓ ご家族様 (the addressee’s family)
✓ ご親族様 (the addressee’s relatives)

In cases when the plural form of the subjects stated above are required, place 〜方:
✓ お嬢様方 (the addressee’s daughters)
✓ お子息様方 (the addressee’s sons)
✓ ご友人方 (the addressee’s friends, genderless)
Sonkeigo
They
Japanese is a null-subject language, and the use of “they” is omitted when possible. When it is required, the specific subject is most likely used accordingly:
✓ 両親 (the addresser’s parents)
✓ 家族 (the addresser’s family)
✓ 親族 (the addresser’s relatives)
In cases when the plural form of the subjects stated above are required, place 〜達:
✓ 娘達 (the addresser’s daughters)
✓ 息子達 (the addresser’s sons)
✓ 友人達 or 親友達 (the addresser’s friends, genderless)
Kenjogo
Their company
✓ 〇〇さん
Sonkeigo

Possessive Pronouns
Examples
Type of Register

✓ In all cases, 〜のfollows the pronouns stated above.
Teineigo, Sonkeigo, Kenjogo

Greetings
Examples
Type of Register
Hello, how are you?
Good afternoon
✓ こんにちは
Teineigo, Sonkeigo, Kenjogo
Good morning
✓ おはようございます

Good evening
✓ こんばんは

Good night
✓ お休みなさい

Long time no see
✓ お世話になってます

✓ お世話になっております
Teineigo

Sonkeigo, Kenjobo

Closings
Examples
Type of Register
Take care, regards, sincerely, yours, good bye
✓ よろしくお願いします (written)

✓ よろしくお願い致します(written)
Teineigo

Sonkeigo, Kenjogo

5.3. Informal Register
In contrast to the formal speech, where inflectional endings are 〜です or 〜ます, the informal speech keeps the dictionary forms as they are, but they are sometimes followed by 〜よ or 〜ね depending on the tone of the speaker.

Please keep in mind that the informal register is used only in cases where the addressers’ relationship with the addressee is intimate. When translating tasks and the required register is “informal”, “casual” or “friendly”, there are still many cases in which the formal register is still required. In these cases, it is sometimes sensible to go with the teneigo.

Personal Pronouns
Examples
Type of Register
I
✓ 私 (watashi)
Informal
We
✓ 私達
Informal
You
(singular and plural)
When possible, the use of names is encouraged. When names are unknown, the following can be used, but keep in mind that the Japanese is a null-subject language.
✓ 君
✓ あなた
Informal
She
Use the name directly if known.
✓ ◯◯
When the name is not known:
✓ 彼女
✓ 奥さん (the addressee’s wife)
✓ お祖母さん or お祖母ちゃん (the addressee’s grandmother)
✓ お母さん (the addressee’s mother)
✓ 娘 or 娘さん (the addressee’s daughter)
✓ お姉ちゃん (the addressee’s elder sister)
✓ 妹 or 妹さん (the addressee’s younger sister)
✓ 友人 or 親友 or 友達 (the addressee’s friend, genderless)
Informal
He
Use the name directly if known.
✓ ◯◯
When the name is not known:
✓ ご主人 or主人or 旦那さん (the addressee’s husband)
✓ お祖父さん orお祖父ちゃん (the addressee’s grandfather)
✓ お父さん (the addressee’s father)
✓ 息子 or 息子さん (the addressee’s son)
✓ お兄ちゃん (the addressee’s elder brother)
✓ 弟 (the addressee’s younger brother)
✓ 友人 or 親友 or 友達 (the addressee’s friend, genderless)
Informal
They
Use the name directly if known. When the name is not known:
✓ ご両親 or ご両親さん or 両親 or 親 (the addressee’s parents)
✓ 家族 (the addressee’s family)
✓ 親族 (the addressee’s relatives)

In cases when the plural form of the subjects stated above are required, place 〜達:
✓ 娘達 or 娘さん達 (the addressee’s daughters)
✓ 息子達 or 息子さん達 (the addressee’s sons)
✓ 友人達or 親友達 or 友達 (the addressee’s friends, genderless)
Informal

Possessive Pronouns
Examples
Type of Register

✓ In all cases, 〜のfollows the pronouns stated above.
Informal

Greetings
Examples
Type of Register
Hello
✓ よぉ or やぁ
✓ The above greetings can sound more masculine. When possible, simply mention the addressee’s name to receive his/her/their attention.
Informal
Good morning
✓ おはよう
Informal
Good evening
✓ Often times not used in the informal speech
Informal
Good night
✓ お休み
Informal
How are you?
✓ 元気?
Informal
Long time no see
✓ 久しぶり
Informal

Closings
Examples
Type of Register
Take care, regards, sincerely, yours, good bye
✓ じゃあ
✓ じゃあね
✓ じゃあな (masculine)
✓ じゃあ、また
✓ またね
✓ またな (masculine)
Informal

6. Localization challenges
6.1. Proper nouns
Proper nouns refer to unique entities, such as persons, places, organizations, brands, events, etc. As foreign proper nouns are concerned, languages may adopt different rules regarding whether they should be translated or kept in the original language. When editing a text, you should follow your languages rules for all different types of proper nouns listed below. However, please note that if there is a glossary provided by the client that includes these types of units, you should always apply the glossary items.

6.1.1. Persons
When Japanese names need to be translated, we are often unaware of their spelling in Japanese, whether it should be written in Kana or Kanji. In those cases, there are two ways in which you can translate.

Example
Source text: Mr. Tanaka
✘ 田仲様
✓ タナカ様
✓ Tanaka様

When foreign names need to be translated, please keep their names in English, especially because we are not always certain of their pronunciations.

Example
Source text: Ms. Turner
✘ ターナー様
✓ Turner様

In the cases when names are known worldwide, such as those of celebrities, politicians, etc., please use the equivalent used by the general public. When their full names are given, please place a dot between their first and last name.

Example
Source text: Bill Gates
✘ ビルゲイツ
✓ ビル・ゲイツ

Also, in compound foreign names, the symbol ‘=’ is used.

Example
Source text: Jean-Luc Godard
✘ ジャンリュックゴダール
✓ ジャン=リュック・ゴダール

6.1.2. Places
In the cases when the given place names (cities, monuments, etc.) are in Japan and in countries where they use Chinese characters, please translate them into Japanese. However, if the client specifically asks the names to be not translated, please leave them in the original language.

Example
Source text: Kanagawa prefecture
✘ Kanagawa県
✓ 神奈川県

When you are asked to translate names of places (cities, countries, monuments) you have never heard before, please search their names to see whether there have Japanese equivalents. If you are unable to find their equivalent, please leave their names in the original language. However, if the client specifically asks the names to be not translated, please leave them in the original language.

Examples
Source text: Moscow
✘ Moscow
✓ モスクワ

Source text: Ndamukong
✘ ンダムコング
✓ Ndamukong

6.1.3. Organizations
If the names of organizations have a Japanese equivalent, please translate them into Japanese. However, if equivalents are not found, please leave them in the original language. If the client specifically asks the names to be not translated, please also leave them in the original language.

Example
Source text: University of Birmingham
✘ University of Birmingham
✘ ユニバーシティ オブ バーミンガム
✓ バーミンガム大学

6.1.4. Brands and products
When names of brands and products have their Japanese equivalents, please translate them into Japanese. However, if equivalents are not found, please leave them in the original language. If the client specifically asks the names to be not translated, please also leave them in the original language.

Examples
Source text: Samsung
✘ Samsung
✓ サムスン

Source text: Kryddnejlika
✘ クリドゥネジュリカ
✓ Kryddnejlika

6.1.5. Other entities
If entities such as art (paintings), events (festivals, theatre plays, etc.), names of boats (e.g. Titanic), etc. have their Japanese equivalents, please translate them into Japanese. If not, please leave them in the original language. If the client specifically asks the names to be not translated, please also leave them in the original language.

Example
Source text: St. Patrick’s Day
✘ St. Patrick’s Day
✓ 聖パトリックの祝日

6.2. Acronyms and initials
When the target acronyms exist in Japanese, please choose the most common convention. On the other hand, when the acronym doesn’t exist in Japanese, please keep source abbreviation. Please also be mindful if the client would like them to be translated or left in the original language.

Examples
Source text: NASA
✘ なさ
✘ ナサ
✓ NASA (more common than ナサ)

Source text: ASCII
✘ あすきぃ
✓ ASCII
✓ アスキー

Source text: FBI
✘ エフビーアイ
✓ FBI
✓ 連邦捜査局

6.3. Date format
Japanese takes the following data format: yy/mm/dd. Please translate them accordingly:

Example
Source text: March 20, 2013
✘ 3月20日、2013年
✓ 2013年3月20日
✓ 二〇十三年三月二十日 (context-dependent)

6.4. Time format
Japanese follows the time format that are both am/pm and 24 hour. Here, the format in the source text can be kept.

Examples
Source text: 18:30
✘ 午後6時半
✓ 18時半
✓ 18:30

Source text: 4:15 p.m.
✘ 16:15
✓ 午後4時15分

6.5. Measures
Measures should always keep the format of the source text and should never be converted. You should only translate them when they have an equivalent term in your language.

Japanese follows such measurement terms as mm, cm, and km, but it does not use feet, square feet, miles, etc. Please translate them using the Japanese equivalents in katakana or keep them in roman alphabet abbreviations. When abbreviations are used, please do not translate them into full names.

Examples
Source text: This device is 6 feet in length.
✘ この装置の長さは183cmだ。
✓ この装置の長さは6フィートだ。
✓ この装置の長さは6feetだ

Source text: She drove 32 km an hour.
✘ 彼女は時速32キロメートルで走った。
✓ 彼女は時速32キロで走った。
✓ 彼女は時速32kmで走った。

Source text: The internal temperature of this machine is 100.4 °F.
✘ この機械の内部温度は38度だ。
✓ この機械の内部温度は100.4華氏だ。
✓ この機械の内部温度は100.4 °Fだ。

6.6. Currency
Please do not translate currency values as they should be left as they are in the source text. However, please translate the currency symbols and keep in mind that the values are followed by the Japanese currency units without a whitespace.

Example
Source text: $100
✘ 10,604円
✓ 百ドル
✓ 100ドル

Please do not translate currency initials (USD, GBP, RUB, INR, DKK, NOK, etc.) as they are a convention accepted worldwide.

Example
Source text: 60 GBP
✘ 60ジービーピー
✘ ジービーピー60
✓ 60 GBP

7. Tricky cases
Collocations
While translating a text, please keep the collocations in mind. Otherwise, the text can have overly literal errors:

Examples
Source text: strong coffee
✘ 強いコーヒー
✓ 濃いコーヒー

Source text: make tea
✘ お茶をつくる
✓ お茶をいれる
Inanimate subject
Japanese doesn’t have inanimate subject construction, so please pay attention when you translate such sentences.

Example
Source text: This medicine will make you feel better.
✘ この薬はあなたをより良い気分にさせるでしょう。
✓ この薬を飲めば、気分が良くなりますよ。
Counters
In Japanese, counters are classifiers used along with numbers to count things, actions and events. Thus, please pay attention when you translate such sentences.

Example
Source text: He bought two computers.
✘ 彼はパソコンを二つ買った。
✓ 彼はパソコンを二台買った。
Long vowel bars
Long vowel bars are used in Japanese when foreign words are transliterated into loanwords using katakana. Although variations exist, the convention is to have a bar for foreign words that possesse a –er, –or, or –ar sound. However, please be mindful that when loanwords do not use a long vowel bar at the end when the original words clearly have a long vowel, they are not wrong. In fact, both cases are accepted and used commonly in everyday Japanese. Nevertheless, please translate foreign words according to the convention.

Examples
Source text: computer
✓ コンピューター (recommended)
✓ コンピュータ

Source text: memory
✓ メモリー (recommended)
✓ メモリ

Source text: printer
✓ プリンター (recommended)
✓ プリンタ

8. Most frequent errors
Grammatical register
Examples
Source text: Could you provide your telephone number? (formal, sonkeigo)
✘ あなたの電話番号を教えてくれますか?
✓ お手数でございますが、お客様の電話番号をお知らせ頂きますようお願いいたします。

Source text: Please respond to this email. (formal, sonkeigo)
✘ このメールに返事をください。
✓ 大変恐縮でございますが、こちらのメールにご返信頂きますようお願いいたします。

Source text: Please see below for the instruction: (formal, sonkeigo)
✘ 説明は下記を見てください:
✓ 説明は下記をご覧ください。

Source text: I will send you the sample by mail. (formal, kenjogo)
✘ あなたに郵便でサンプルを送ります。
✓ 郵便にてサンプルをお送りいたします。

Source text: I would like to report the result of our investigation. (formal, kenjogo)
✘ あなたに調査の結果を報告します。
✓ 調査の結果をご報告いたします。

Source text: We will look at the document and let you know. (formal, kenjogo)
✘ 本社が資料を見てからあなたに伝えます。
✓ 弊社が資料を拝見しお知らせいたします。
Lexical selection
Examples
Source text: regards,
✘ 敬具、
✓ よろしくお願い致します。

Source text: sincerely,
✘ 心をこめて、
✓ よろしくお願い致します。

Source text: Our technical development team will investigate the issue.
✘ 私たちのテクニカルデベロップメントチームが問題を調査します。
✓ 弊社の技術開発チームが問題を調査いたします。
Punctuation
Examples
Source text: Hello, this is Jana.
✘ こんにちは、こちらはヤーナです。
✓ こんにちは。Janaと申します。

Source text: Thank you for contacting us! (formal)
✘ ご連絡いただきありがとうございます!
✓ ご連絡いただきありがとうございます。

Source text: Can you confirm this is your account ID? (formal)
✘ こちらがお客様のアカウントIDであることをご確認いただけますか?
✓ こちらがお客様のアカウントIDであることをご確認いただけますか。